Pvote: prerendered user interfaces

In Pvote, the ballot definition file contains:

Pvote is not the first voting software to use prerendering, although I believe it takes the concept further than before. Pvote's ballot format is highly generalized so that the user interface (both visual and audio) can be completely redesigned in the ballot definition without changing the Pvote software.

The prerendering strategy can work for other contexts as well (not just for voting machines). Prerendering is effective when user interfaces change often but high assurance is needed. Its main advantages are:

Below I list the prior work in prerendered voting interfaces of which I am aware; if you know of others please contact me and let me know.


EVM2003 is an open-source project to develop a reference implementation of the Open Voting Consortium design standards. It is also written in Python and I am told that it involves the display of ballots as prerendered images.


According to Doug Jones, the ES&S iVotronic, a commercial DRE voting machine, has a "bitmap ballot" feature.